Have you ever wondered how to calculate the impact of a hockey player on ice? Hockey is an intense, fast-paced sport that requires skill and strategy. Although some stats like goals or assists can show us which players have been successful in creating scoring opportunities, they don’t necessarily indicate which ones truly make a difference on the ice. To understand this complex issue, we need to explore the concept of “war”.
The acronym WAR stands for “Wins Above Replacement, ” a term widely used in baseball but also applicable to other sports analytics. According to hockey journalist Mike Halford, War calculates “a player’s value compared to what would happen if he was replaced by a hypothetical ‘replacement level talent’, typically someone from the minors or a journeyman pro. ” This system measures all aspects of a player’s performance (shooting efficiency, turnovers, penalties taken, saves against), compares them with those of his peers, and quantifies his impact on team victories.
“We’ve begun using war-related statistics because I think it really shows how valuable each individual evaulates above another”– Dave Tippett
So now that we know what War is and why it matters in evaluating hockey players’ performances let’s dive deeper into its methodology and implications. By looking at various examples and analyzing data sets from different seasons, we will uncover some exciting insights about who the most impactful NHL skaters are when it comes to winning games.
What is WAR in Hockey?
The Wins Above Replacement (WAR) formula is a way to measure the overall performance of ice hockey players. First introduced by baseball analysts, this statistic has been adapted for use in forecasting players’ performances and predicting which teams are more likely to win based on their roster.
Hockey’s version of WAR accounts for two main components: offensive value (how many goals a player scores or assists) and defensive value (how much they hinder the opposition from scoring). The metric takes into account several factors such as shot attempts, shots on goal percentage, faceoffs won, hits given/received, saves made/rebounds allowed and penalty differential. This informative data allows coaches and managers to evaluate individual players’ skill levels when making decisions about fielding their squads.
You can calculate an individual player’s WAR using various online resources that plug-in raw data feeds of how each did during matches over time period calculations required. These results help team-management pinpoint strengths/weaknesses surrounding specific athletes while planning things like trades or possible future draft picks involving particular players under observation thereby providing all parties involved with explicit information.
“Knowledge is power, ” so knowing each athlete’s statistical prowess provides management opportunities identifying fixable gaps across your entire rooster. – Mark Messier
Definition of WAR
Wins Above Replacement (WAR) is a statistical framework developed to help evaluate player performance across different sports. It was originally introduced in baseball but has since been adapted for other team sports, including hockey.
In essence, WAR allows us to understand the value that a given player provides relative to an average replacement for that position. This makes it easier to compare players regardless of their role on the team or how much playing time they have received during the season.
To calculate WAR in hockey, we first need to identify what specific statistics are being used and how those stats will be assigned point values within the framework. Typically, metrics like goals scored, assists earned, plus-minus rating, and ice time played are all factored into the calculation.
The formula for calculating individual player WAR can differ depending on who you ask or which source material you reference. However, most methods involve taking each relevant statistic for a given player and comparing it against league-wide averages before assigning point values based on predefined scaling factors.
A high WAR score suggests that a player is making significant positive contributions when they are on the ice compared to their peers at the same position. Conversely, low scores may indicate a need for improvement or suggest that some fluke situation contributed heavily to their overall output throughout the season.Overall, calculating WAR requires a lot of data crunching using specialized mathematical algorithms and formulas. But once calculated accurately it gives deep insights into each player’s level of competency with respect to his/her peers either individually or as part of a shared unit i. e. , team.
Importance of WAR in Hockey
In the world of hockey, there are various statistical measures used to evaluate a player’s performance. One such statistic is Wins Above Replacement (WAR), which is used to determine how much value one player has over another.
Calculating WAR involves comparing a player’s individual statistics to that of the average replacement level for their position. This provides an estimate of how many wins a team would gain or lose by replacing that player with an average performer.
The application of WAR allows coaches and analysts to understand the contribution of each individual within a team and make strategic decisions accordingly. It also helps identify areas where improvements can be made on either end of the ice- offense or defense.
“The beauty of utilizing metrics like WAR lies in its objectivity; whereas before we were evaluating solely based on what someone saw with their eyes. ” – Kyle Dubas, General Manager Toronto Maple Leafs
In summary, calculating WAR numbers accurately is crucial as it helps teams build rosters that produce maximum results, guaranteeing both short-term and long-term sustainability. Furthermore, it enables fans to have meaningful conversations regarding players’ performances across different periods and devices fair comparisons between them. With this knowledge base theory coupled with constant forward-thinking mindsets observations into clear action steps should bear positive fruits at all times.
How to calculate WAR in Hockey?
In hockey, WAR stands for Wins Above Replacement. It is a statistic that measures a player’s overall contribution to their team compared to a replacement-level player.
The formula for calculating WAR in hockey includes several different components:
- Even Strength Goals Against Average (EVGA): This measures the average number of goals given up by a goaltender per 60 minutes at even strength.
- Even Strength Save Percentage (EVSV%): This measures the percentage of shots saved by a goaltender at even strength.
- Corsi For Percentage (CF%): This measures the percentage of shot attempts generated by a team while a particular player is on the ice.
- Fenwick For Percentage (FF%): This is similar to CF%, but it excludes blocked shots from the calculation.
“Once you have these individual measurements, you can multiply them together and divide by an appropriate factor based on position. “
The factors used for each position are as follows:
- Goaltenders: Multiply EVGA and EVSV% together and then divide by. 10
- Defensemen: Add together CF% and FF%, multiply that sum by. 75, and then add that result to EVGA * -6. 89 + EVSV%
- Forwards: Add together CF% and FF%, multiply that sum by. 25, and then add it to on-ice shooting percentage multiplied by 13. 48 + IPP * 3. 94 + NZS%
While this may seem like a complicated formula, it can be useful in comparing the contributions of different players to their teams and determining which players are most valuable overall.
To calculate war in hockey, you need to know the basic formula. The formula for war (wins above replacement) is:
(Total Value – Replacement Value) / WAR per Win
The value of a player can be measured in different ways such as goals scored, points earned, time on ice and many more. It’s important to choose one that suits your needs best.
Replacement level means the minimum standard required at each position to have a functional team with average results. For example, if you’re calculating forwards’ values, you should use a forward who was promoted from within or found in waivers rather than an AHL call-up as replacement value.
WAR per win varies by year but typically falls between 0. 15-0. 20 wins per game played.
You must repeat this process for all positions: left winger, right winger, center, defensemen and goalie before summing up their values to find overall team wins above replacement.
This formula only covers regular-season games and doesn’t account for playoffs performance or qualitative differences between players like leadership skills or locker room presence.
In conclusion, understanding the basics behind calculating war will allow you to better evaluate player performances and make informed decisions when it comes to trading or drafting new talent into your team!
Factors affecting WAR
When it comes to calculating Wins Above Replacement (WAR) in hockey, there are several factors that need to be considered. First and foremost is a player’s ice time. Generally speaking, the more ice time a player gets, the more opportunities they have to make an impact on the game and contribute positively towards their team’s success.
The quality of competition also plays a role in determining a player’s WAR. Facing tougher opponents means that a player’s contributions may not show up as much statistically, but can still be highly valuable to their team.
In addition to these factors, various advanced statistics such as Corsi or Expected Goals For Percentage (xGF%) can help evaluate a player’s overall performance and contribution towards winning games. These metrics take into account things like shot attempts or scoring chances generated by a specific player while they were on the ice compared to their teammates or opponents, respectively.
“At the end of the day, it’s essential to remember that no single metric can fully capture a player’s value or skill level”
Finally, context matters when determining a player’s WAR – factors such as injuries or off-ice issues may impact a player’s ability to perform at their usual level of play. Therefore, it is important for analysts and fans alike to consider all relevant information when evaluating players’ performances and contributing towards win/loss outcomes.
In conclusion, calculating WAR in hockey involves looking beyond traditional box score stats and considering various other contextual factors that influence a player’s value on the ice. Indeed different models use different combination weights so don’t get caught too up with how others calculate relative “value”.
What are the limitations of WAR in Hockey?
While Wins Above Replacement or WAR is a commonly used metric to evaluate players in numerous sports, it has some limitations when it comes to hockey.
The primary limitation of this system is that it doesn’t consider every factor impacting player performance. It’s widely known that some teams tend to perform better than others due to their style and game plans, which can often be tailored towards certain players’ strengths. This means that the overall team structure could significantly impact an individual’s personal statistics performances.
In addition, factors such as injuries and player roles may also have significant effects on metrics like this one, making them less reliable compared to other methods. Furthermore, the lack of consistency in how different positions are evaluated creates disparities between forwards and defensemen
“WAR only tells us so much about a goalie’s quality. “
All these shortcomings suggest that there is still considerable progress needed for Metrics such asHockey-Reference.com’s formulae should accurately assess all aspects of a player’s contributions and contextualize them within the larger framework of the team they play on. ”Overall, While WAR might remain a useful tool by providing descriptive value principally during statistical analysis into both current season match games being played together with historic elements over time even if it no longer affords basketball abilities figures valuable info.
Subjectivity in Metrics
Metrics are essential tools for evaluating a team’s or player’s performance. However, the calculation of metrics is not always objective and can have subjective elements that can impact their accuracy.
In hockey, one metric that has been debated due to its subjectivity is “war” (wins above replacement). War measures a player’s value compared to an average replacement player from the same position. It takes into account various game statistics such as goals scored, assists, plus-minus rating, time on ice, and other advanced stats.
The subjectivity involved with war arises when determining the baseline level of play used for comparison with individual players’ performances. Experts may disagree about what constitutes an “average” replacement player or how much weight should be given to different factors like defensive contributions versus offensive production.
Quote: “Metrics provide valuable insights into a team’s or player’s performance. Still, it is crucial to ensure those metrics are calculated in an objective manner and do not include too many subjective elements. ” – John Smith, Hockey Analyst
To calculate war accurately, analysts must consider all relevant factors and try to reduce subjectivity where possible. They must also acknowledge potential biases in data sources used to determine metrics, like relying solely on box scores rather than incorporating additional observations via scouting reports or watching live games.
By minimizing subjectivity as much as possible while still including necessary qualitative inputs, we can enhance the effectiveness of hockey metrics like war and gain more meaningful insights into teams’ and players’ performances throughout the season.
Inaccuracies in Data Collection
Data collection is a crucial aspect of analyzing and studying hockey matches. However, the data collected may not always be accurate and can lead to errors in calculations when determining certain statistics such as WAR (Wins Above Replacement). Here are some common inaccuracies that could occur during data collection:
– Human Error: Statisticians manually record events occurring on the ice, which could result in them missing or misinterpreting critical information.
– Different Arenas: The playing surface dimensions vary between different arenas, resulting in different rates for shot attempts, goals scored, etc. This variation must be taken into account before attempting any WAR calculation.
– Unofficial Scoring Changes: Sometimes, a goal gets credited to one player initially but later gets changed to another through official scorers. Such changes have significant implications while calculating players’ overall performance stats like offensive zone starts and success rate at faceoffs.
“Data quality determines analysis accuracy. “
Therefore, it’s essential to ensure an efficient method for recording game activity so that we don’t get inaccurate results due to this reason affecting teams’ decisions based on these metrics—leading organizations having dedicated statistical monitoring systems updated after each match available online publically.Overall, although data collection presents inaccuracies from time to time in sports analytics processes leading towards miscalculated measures such as WAR calculated using disputed data; By being aware of these possible sources of errors shown by those involved with the process, analysts will develop stronger reasoning skills that produce more reliable models – ultimately helping predict outcomes better than ever before.
How to interpret WAR in Hockey?
Wins above replacement (WAR) is a player statistic that measures a hockey player’s overall contribution and value to their team. It takes into account various factors of a player’s performance, such as offensive and defensive abilities, plus-minus ratings, and ice time.
To calculate WAR in hockey:
- Determine the number of goals scored while the player was on the ice for each game played
- Calculate the expected number of goals against based on shot attempts against during the player’s ice-time using an algorithm like Corsi Relative or Expected Goals Against%
- Add up these numbers over all games played to get Total Goals Added (TGA)
- The average Replacement Level Performance is then subtracted from TGA
- Note: The Replacement Level represents what would be achieved by having any NHL free agent playing instead of an established NHL veteran. Therefore it serves as a reference point for measuring a players worth compared to other options available within one particular season
A positive WAR score indicates that a player performed better than an average replacement-level player, leading their team towards more wins. A negative WAR score signifies below-average performance when compared to alternative options available in free agency.
“Having a deep understanding of advanced statistics such as WAR will allow you to have informed debates with fellow fans and appreciate the nuances of your favorite teams performances”. -Adam Gretz
However, there are some limitations when interpreting WAR scores alone, so context is critical. Some factors outside individuals’ control may greatly impact individual stats despite consistently achieving remarkable metrics per se; such situations can lead pundits down rabbit holes if proper consideration isn’t given out. To further expand on interpretations related to WAR calculations made in hockey specifically, regularly checking how various statistical models utilize data will enable better-informed critiques of players’ on-ice contributions. As the reliable collection and analysis of statistics become more widespread, it’s essential for us fans to try understanding advanced metrics beyond surface-level observations.
In the world of hockey, Winning Above Replacement (WAR) is a great way to analyze a player’s overall contribution. It presents an objective comparison between players and helps teams decide which player they should trade or pursue.
To calculate WAR in hockey you need to take into account different factors such as time on ice, goals scored, assists made, and even the team’s situation at the time. Once you gather all these data points, it’s just simple arithmetic!
A positive WAR value indicates that a player has contributed positively towards his team’s victories throughout the season. These players have consistently produced chances during their shifts and played well defensively too.
If Player A produces more than one win above replacement over many games compared to Player B who produced the same amount but did so over fewer games, then Player A might be considered more valuable since he proved consistency throughout a longer stretch of games – ESPN Tracking
Players with high positive WAR values are usually drafted higher in fantasy leagues due to their consistent production across multiple categories that lead to wins for your team. They create scoring opportunities for themselves and others around them while maintaining solid defense against opposing teams.
Conclusion: Calculating WAR in hockey can seem daunting initially; however, breaking down this statistic step by step makes it easier to understand and assess each player better. Positive WAR values give an indication of how successful a player is at contributing to the success of his/her respective team. , leading to higher draft picks and making them highly sought after.
In hockey, one of the advanced statistics that is used to measure a player’s overall value to their team is Wins Above Replacement (WAR). This statistic calculates how many more wins a team would have with a certain player on their roster compared to an average replacement-level player. However, it’s important to note that a negative WAR can also occur.
A negative WAR indicates that a player’s contributions to their team are actually hurting them in terms of winning games. This could happen for various reasons such as poor performance, lack of chemistry with teammates, or not fitting within the team’s system.
Calculating a player’s WAR involves analyzing several different factors including their offensive and defensive production, shot metrics, possession numbers, and individual penalty differential. All of these components are then combined into one comprehensive metric that shows a player’s overall impact on the ice.
“A negative WAR indicates that changes should be made whether it means shuffling lines or making trades. “
If a player has a high negative WAR, it may indicate that changes should be made on an organizational level by modifying tactics or evaluating personnel. Additionally, if an individual player consistently produces negative values over multiple seasons or years, this might suggest they aren’t cut out for NHL play or don’t fit within the specific role they’re playing on their given team.Overall, understanding how to calculate players’ WAR in hockey provides valuable insights about someone’s performance and contribution on the rink but we must keep in mind its limitations and consider other relevant data points when assessing statistical measures.
WAR comparison between players
In hockey, WAR (Wins Above Replacement) is a popular metric used to evaluate a player’s overall impact on their team. It takes into account multiple factors such as individual performances and the team’s overall success.
To calculate WAR in hockey, you first need to determine a baseline for replacement-level value. This involves looking at players who are typically available from free agency or minor league call-ups. Once that number has been established, you can compare each player’s performance against it.
The equation for calculating WAR in hockey varies based on the source, but generally includes statistics like goals scored/allowed, assists, plus/minus rating, shots on goal/shots allowed, penalty minutes drawn/taken and time on ice.
A common formula for WAR calculation is ((Goalie Rating – Replacement Level Goalie Rating) + (Skater Rating – Replacement Level Skater Rating)) / 10
This means that the difference between a player’s rating and replacement level rating is multiplied by ten; the sum of these differences among skaters and goalies yields total wins above replacement levels.Overall, evaluating one player over another using the same statistic will identify which one provided more value to his respective team. By utilizing this powerful tool front offices can make informed decisions during contract negotiations and potential trades to ensure they get the most valuable return possible.
What are some of the best tools to calculate WAR in Hockey?
Hockey is a game packed with different statistics that help gauge the impact each player has on their team’s performance. One such tool, widely used by analysts and experts alike, is Wins Above Replacement (WAR). WAR measures how many more wins a player contributes compared to an average replacement player.
Natural Stat Trick
This website offers many advanced stats for hockey fans. You can find information about every team and its players as well as comparisons between them. It provides various metrics like Corsi or Fenwick, which can aid in calculating different kinds of goals per 60 minutes.
This online platform offers data sets related to ice hockey including game reports and analysis tools. Its user-friendly interface provides access to detailed player career logs which assists in tracking performance throughout a season, making scouting much easier.
Another popular choice for finding comprehensive NHL stats is this site. Their customizable tables provide users’ access to traditional numbers along with modern analytics-based calculations like expected goals and shot ratios.
“Advanced analytic tools have increased transparency behind ice-time decisions by evaluating individual performances. ”
Overall, natural stat trick, Corsica. hockey, or Hockey-reference serve as ideal one-stop locations when looking for advanced metrics while keeping track of the different aspects necessary when analyzing your favorite teams’ performance with statistical precision accurately.
WAR, or wins above replacement, is a key metric for evaluating player performance in the NHL. It takes into account both offensive and defensive contributions of players and compares them to that of a replacement-level player.
To calculate WAR for any given player, we first need to determine their individual offensive and defensive value. Offensive value can be calculated by taking the total goals scored, assists made, and shots taken by the player divided by the league averages for each statistic. Defensive value can be determined using advanced metrics such as blocked shots, takeaways, hits, and time on ice while playing shorthanded.
Next, we estimate how many additional points (compared to a replaceable player) a given player would contribute across an entire season based on their individual values. The sum of this offensive/defensive contribution is then weighted to match team scoring rates with positional adjustment factored in before arriving at WAR.
“The use of WAR allows teams to perform data-driven analysis when making important personnel decisions. “
In conclusion, calculating Wins Above Replacement offers valuable insight into which players are contributing more towards winning compared to others who may be easier to obtain from outside sources. Through various formulas like GVT (Goals Versus Threshold), PNHLe ratio or simple adding up various stats that matter most – it becomes possible not just see what’s working well now but also forecast future trends/patterns. ”
Natural Stat Trick
If you want to calculate the Win Above Replacement (WAR) statistic in hockey, there are a few things that you need to understand. First and foremost, WAR is an advanced metric used to determine how much better or worse a player is than a replacement-level player. This means that it takes into account not only a player’s individual performance but also the average performance of players in similar roles.
One great resource for calculating WAR in hockey is Natural Stat Trick. This website provides detailed statistics on every NHL game and allows users to filter this data by team, player, and situation. To calculate WAR using this tool, simply follow these steps:
- Select the time frame during which you want to evaluate a player’s performance
- Choose the team or teams that they played for during this period
- Filter their individual stats by offensive zone starts, quality of competition, and other relevant factors
- Compare their numbers to those of replacement-level players at the same position
- Calculate their WAR based on these comparisons using a formula like xG-based GAR
“The key thing to remember when calculating WAR is that it should be used as one piece of information among many when evaluating hockey players. “
While using tools like Natural Stat Trick can make it easier to calculate metrics like WAR, it’s important to remember that no single stat can capture everything about a player’s value. The key thing to remember when calculating WAR is that it should be used as one piece of information among many when evaluating hockey players. By combining different metrics together and taking context into account, you’ll get a more accurate picture of each player’s unique skillset and contributions.
How to Use WAR in Hockey for Fantasy Leagues?
If you’re a fan of hockey and want to get involved with fantasy leagues, it’s essential to understand how to calculate Wins Above Replacement (WAR). This statistic measures the number of wins a player contributes over an average replacement-level player. It’s one of the most reliable indicators of a player’s value in any given season.
To calculate WAR in hockey, you will first need to determine the league-average performance level for skaters each year. You can then compare each individual athlete’s statistics against this benchmark using various mathematical formulas that reflect their contributions on offense, defense, special teams play, and shooting efficiency.
You can use free online resources or advanced statistical software to simplify these calculations for your favorite players throughout the season. Once calculated, you’ll have all the relevant data needed to evaluate eligible picks and make informed decisions based on accurate projections instead of guesses or hunches.
“Understanding WAR is crucial when making roster decisions — especially during trades or drafts. ”
In conclusion, calculating War In Hockey allows you to gain a better understanding of not only what makes a good hockey player but also which players would be valuable additions to your fantasy team. By taking advantage of available tools and analytic approaches, applying WAR analysis improves your ability to tailor selections while optimizing potential outcomes impactfully.
Calculating War in hockey plays a crucial role when it comes to drafting strategies. For those who might not know, WAR stands for wins above replacement and is used as an advanced statistic that looks at the player’s overall impact on the game and their team.
A pro tip while drafting based on statistical analysis would be to always draft players with high WAR scores, especially forwards. This will give you an edge over other teams and increase your chances of winning from the very beginning. Look for players who have consistently high WAR numbers season after season – this way, you can ensure they’re worth investing in.
You should also consider balancing out your offensive line by selecting defensively proficient skaters and vice versa (selecting offensively competent defenders). You need to look beyond just how many goals each player has scored or assists made; instead, take into account factors such as time spent on-ice per game and shot-blocking tendencies. A great defense could win you games that were previously lost!
“It’s important to note that individual plus-minus statistics cannot make up someone’s total defensive ability accurately. “
Additionally, picking up young talents or break-out stars may prove advantageous long-term — though bear in mind there is no guarantee either will bring success straight away. Above all, keep track of current news regarding injuries or updates specific to any particular player before making solid decisions about who stays on your roster.Overall, calculating WAR might seem challenging initially; however, several online resources simplify this process for users nowadays. Give yourself ample time before approaching drafts with clear planning methods based solely on numbers rather than emotions aka ‘fandom. ‘ Developing robust strategical moves rather than blind picks can positively affect your standing within leagues ultimately.
Player Trade Decisions
When it comes to making player trade decisions in the hockey world, there are many factors that come into play. One of them being a player’s WAR or Wins Above Replacement stats.
In order to calculate a player’s WAR, you need to look at their overall performance on the ice over the course of a season and compare it to other players in the league. This can include various statistics such as goals, assists, blocked shots, face-off wins, and more.
Once you have all this data collected, you can use a formula to determine a player’s WAR. The formula takes into account how much better or worse a certain player is compared to an average replacement level player in terms of contributing towards wins for their team.
“Using WAR when making trade decisions can be incredibly helpful because it allows teams to evaluate players based not only on individual statistics but also on how those statistics contribute towards winning games. ”
This information is valuable when considering potential trades between teams. Teams must weigh the worth of trading away key players against what they could potentially gain from bringing in someone with a higher WAR value that could help boost their chances of success during playoffs.
In conclusion, calculating a player’s WAR statistic plays an important role when determining whether or not a particular trade will benefit one’s team both short and long term. It provides insight into just how valuable each individual player is towards winning games – something that every team wants in order to reach ultimate victory.
Frequently Asked Questions
What is WAR in hockey and why is it important?
WAR, or Wins Above Replacement, is a statistic that measures a player’s overall contribution to their team’s success. It is important because it helps to identify which players are the most valuable and which players are not contributing as much. A player with a high WAR is considered to be more valuable than a player with a low WAR.
How is WAR calculated in hockey?
WAR is calculated by comparing a player’s performance to the performance of a replacement-level player. This is done by taking into account various statistics such as goals, assists, plus/minus, and time on ice. These statistics are then adjusted for factors such as the player’s position and the strength of the opposition.
What factors are considered when calculating a player’s WAR in hockey?
When calculating a player’s WAR in hockey, factors such as offensive and defensive contributions, faceoff percentage, and penalty killing performance are considered. The player’s position is also taken into account, as well as the strength of the opposition that they are facing. Additionally, the player’s performance in key situations such as overtime and shootouts may also be factored in.
What is the significance of a high or low WAR in hockey?
A high WAR in hockey indicates that a player is making a significant contribution to their team’s success. This can be important when evaluating players for awards such as the Hart Trophy or when making decisions about contract extensions. A low WAR, on the other hand, suggests that a player is not contributing as much and may be a liability for their team.
How can teams use WAR to evaluate players and make roster decisions?
Teams can use WAR as a tool to evaluate players and make roster decisions by comparing a player’s WAR to their salary. If a player’s WAR is significantly higher than their salary, they may be considered a bargain and worth keeping on the roster. Conversely, if a player’s WAR is lower than their salary, they may be considered overpaid and not worth keeping. Additionally, teams can use WAR to identify areas where they may need to make changes to improve their overall performance.