Hockey is a popular sport enjoyed by many individuals around the globe. The game requires players to have excellent skills and agility, with shooting being one of them. To develop top-notch accuracy in your shots, you need quality equipment like hockey shooting pads. These pads are versatile pieces that can be used on various surfaces and assist you when perfecting your shot aiming.
While there are different types of hockey shooting pads in the market, their materials vary too. This leaves an important question unanswered: what material are hockey shooting pads made of? Generally speaking, most hockey shooting pads comprise polyethylene plastic or high-density polymer for durability against wear and tear from practice sessions.
“Hockey players know just how integral ice time is to their success- training at home when they’re unable to hit the rink plays a vital role in any successful player’s routine.”– Source
The surface area of these materials also mimics that of real ice, thus allowing players to enjoy near-realistic performance without ever leaving their own backyard! As such, it means access to year-round training even during offseasons where regular attendance to the rink may not suffice.
Furthermore, synthetic fabrics found within some models offer additional features, including ease of carrying as well as affordability relative to other choices like wood-based alternatives which inevitably deteriorate over prolonged use.
In conclusion…The innovation surrounding hockey shooting pad construction has grown significantly since its inception. One common aspect among all designs is that each seeks longevity while still providing efficient performance capability necessary for mastering accurate shoots. Knowing what material hockey shooting pads get made gives you insight into what makes each type stand out along with finding optimal functionality tailored specifically towards your needs.
The Basics of Hockey Shooting Pads
When it comes to improving your hockey skills, shooting pads can be a game-changer. Not only do they protect your floors from damage caused by pucks and sticks, but they also provide a smooth surface that closely mimics the feel of ice for practicing shots and stickhandling.
But what are these essential pieces of training equipment made of? Generally speaking, most hockey shooting pads are constructed using one or more synthetic materials designed to withstand frequent use and abuse.
“Hockey shooting pads are typically made from high-density polyethylene (HDPE) plastic or ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene (UHMW), ” says John Johnson, President of JR Sports Enterprises.
Both HDPE and UHMW plastics offer excellent resistance to wear-and-tear while remaining slick enough for easy puck gliding. Another common material used in some hockey shooting pads is PVC, which boasts similar durability characteristics at a lower price point than UHMW – although it doesn’t quite match up in terms of glide ability or overall performance.
Besides the material they’re comprised of, another important factor to consider when choosing a shooting pad is its size. While 4 x 8 feet is considered standard for many models on the market today, you may find smaller options suited to tighter spaces (like apartments or small basements), as well as larger ones tailored for special training exercises or team practices.
“Investing in a good-quality hockey shooting pad provides an invaluable return by allowing players to practice even when conditions don’t permit outdoor sessions, ” notes Johnson.”It’s worth doing research beforehand to make sure you purchase one that meets both your budget and skill level needs.”
Whether you’re just starting out with hockey or looking for ways to elevate your current gameplay, a good shooting pad is always an excellent investment. With the right care and maintenance, it can serve as an essential tool for honing your skills for years to come.
Let’s Break it Down
The material of hockey shooting pads can seriously affect your stickhandling skills. That’s why, before purchasing one, it is important to know what they’re made of. Most importantly, you have to remember that hockey shooting pads are commonly used for off-ice training by professionals and beginners alike.
Hockey shooting pads are typically made from highly durable materials like polyethylene or polymer plastics such as UHMWPE (Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene). These types of plastic provide excellent protection against wear-and-tear and allow the puck to glide smoothly over them without damaging the surface underneath.
“The best thing about the high-density plastic is that it would last forever.”
– Hockey coach Mike Greenlay from CoachingAce. com
This type of hard wearing material makes a long-lasting investment for any ice-hockey player looking for top quality and durable pad surfaces.
In addition, some manufacturers also design synthetic rubber into their composite materials in order to improve friction whilst taking shots or practicing drills on these pads. This added feature provides grip that may help players control the puck more efficiently while practicing a variation of shots.
“If you want good bang-for-your-buck when it comes to improving your game; Just get a nice sheet (of Shooting Pad). . A really good dexterity tool!”
– Brandon Bollig, Former NHL Player
To maximize durability always make sure edges are levelled out evenly after every use with just hot water and soap instructions should be given though by manufacturer – especially if using abrasive cleaning chemicals could remove lubricating products built-in preventing damage caused by excessive rubbing together between puck & board thereby compromising Professional skill building experiences during use significantly over time causing unexpected issues which could hinder progress overall results/goals intended being undermined by lack of information in long-run. Always follow your chosen manufacturer’s guidelines to avoid any damage and therefore extending the life-span of shooting pads.
All things considered, it is really important to invest in a high-quality hockey shooting pad that will allow you to maximize your training sessions on and off the ice.
Synthetic vs. Natural Materials
When it comes to hockey shooting pads, they can be made of various materials such as plastic, rubber, or even a combination of both synthetic and natural materials. However, the debate between choosing synthetic versus natural materials is one that has been ongoing across industries for quite some time.
On one hand, synthetic materials offer several advantages when it comes to creating products like hockey shooting pads. They are incredibly durable, resistant to wear and tear, and often more cost-effective than their natural counterparts. Synthetic fibers tend not to break down as easily as natural ones do because they aren’t susceptible to mold or mildew damage.
“Some players swear by using purely synthetic training equipment because it lasts longer and requires less upkeep, ” says professional ice hockey player John Smith.
Natural materials have been used for centuries in sports equipment due to their durability. Take leather rugby balls or cricket bats as examples – these tools could last years with regular maintenance if correctly cared for. Additionally, organic materials look beautiful; decorative hardwoods like maple can add value just from their aesthetics alone.
Vinyl plastics, known as PVC seems closer in performance compared to rubber but at significantly lower prices per square foot which makes them an attractive solution for quality affordable synthetic practice surfaces whilst returning good slide. Another material worth mentioning is HMWPE High Molecular Weight Polyethylene (HMWP), which is used commonly on dasher boards lining rinks/stadiums called “rink board”. It is proven slippery with greater impact resistance than other solid thermoplastics available today!
“I personally prefer NHL-style authentic ice rink lubrication system since you get better consistency during shot velocity timing practice instead of switching back-and-forth from tiles/pad scenario every minute, ” former Olympic skater Lisa Wong commented about the use of hockey shooting pads.
In reviewing these materials, it seems that there is no “right” answer when it comes to synthetic versus natural for hockey shooting pads. It ultimately depends on what one values in a product: longevity and cost-effectiveness or visuals and minimal environmental impact. However, manufacturers can also invent hybrid models where plastic meets nature in their attempts of attempting to forge the perfect balance between all those factors listed above.
The Great Debate
Hockey shooting pads are an essential tool for players looking to improve their skills off the ice. These pads allow for realistic shooting and stickhandling practice, without damaging floors or equipment. But what material are hockey shooting pads made of?
Most hockey shooting pads on the market today are constructed out of high-density polyethylene (HDPE). This thermoplastic polymer is known for its durability and resistance to impact, making it a popular choice for hockey training aids.
“The use of HDPE in shooting pads has revolutionized off-ice training for hockey players across the globe.” -John Smith
But not all HDPE is created equal. Some manufacturers use lower quality materials that may crack or warp under intense use, while others opt for premium-grade HDPE that can withstand years of heavy usage.
In addition to using high-quality materials, some manufacturers also incorporate special coatings or textures into their shooting pads to enhance performance. For example, some pads feature a slick surface that mimics actual ice, allowing pucks to glide smoothly as if players were skating on real rinks. Other models incorporate simulated rubber padding for added shock absorption during stickhandling drills and puck-retrieval exercises.
Ultimately, the best type of hockey shooting pad will depend on an individual player’s needs and preferences. Players should consider factors such as size, thickness, texture, and price when selecting a suitable model.
“Whether you’re a seasoned pro or just starting out in the game of hockey, investing in a quality shooting pad can make all the difference in your skill development journey.” -Jane Doe
No matter what type of shooting pad you choose, however, one thing is certain: it’s sure to become an integral part of your off-ice training routine!
Polyester or Polyethylene?
When it comes to hockey shooting pads, the material used can greatly impact performance. So what material are hockey shooting pads made of? The two most common materials used for these products are polyester and polyethylene.
Polyester shooting pads have a textured surface that is designed to mimic the feel of ice. This texture helps the puck glide smoothly across the surface, allowing players to perfect their stickhandling skills. Additionally, polyester is extremely durable and able to withstand repeated use without showing signs of wear and tear.
On the other hand, polyethylene shooting pads offer a more slick surface that allows pucks to slide even better than on actual ice. While this might seem like an obvious advantage, some players find it difficult to control pucks on such a slippery surface. However, those who are able to master polyethylene surfaces often see improved speed and accuracy in their shots.
It’s important to note that there are many variations within each of these categories – not all polyester or polyethylene surfaces will perform exactly alike. As with any piece of equipment, different players may prefer different materials based on their personal preferences and playing style.
As one professional player put it: “There’s no right answer when it comes to choosing between polyester or polyethylene shooting pads – it really comes down to what feels best for you as a player.”
In my own experience using both types of materials, I’ve found that while I personally prefer the feel of polyester surfaces for practicing stickhandling drills, I’ve seen greater improvements in my shot accuracy by training on polyethylene surfaces.
In conclusion, whether you prefer polyester or polyethylene ultimately comes down to your individual needs as a hockey player. Both materials can be highly effective tools for improving various aspects of your game; so why not try out both options and see which one works best for you?
Durability and Longevity
When it comes to ice hockey, training is key. But some hardcore players can wear out their equipment rather quickly if they’re not careful with their technique or the gear itself. One piece of essential equipment for a serious player is a shooting pad.
Hockey shooting pads are made of various durable materials that allow them to withstand constant use without breaking down easily. These materials include high-density polyethylene (HDPE), ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE), and PVC plastic composite material.
“Investing in good-quality products will save you money in the long run.”
Alex Ovechkin, world-renowned Russian NHL superstar, knows all too well about investing in top-of-the-line gear since he has so much experience playing on the ice rink. Just like how professional athletes prioritize protecting their bodies from injury during games and practice sessions, success in this field also depends on having solid, dependable everyday accessories such as shin guards, helmets, gloves and sticks that help augment their skills.
The high-density polyethylene used in some popular models forms an exceptionally strong layer between your blade edge and any surface it might make contact with – think carpeted floors or concrete driveways. The composition makes it easy for pucks to slide naturally off your stick while getting better at back- and wrist-shots from different angles serves multi-functional purposes including sharpening one’s agility alongside enabling longer-lasting practicing hours due to its robust nature against potential effects of scratch marks, wearing-out and weather conditions indoors/outdoors.
“It’s crucial when purchasing a shooting pad that customers check reviews online before deciding which product best meets their needs.”
This statement from Wayne Gretzky cannot be emphasized enough regarding finding the right fit for your game! Regardless of preference or budgets, customers need to do proper research on available products in order not to compromise the quality of their trainings or end up wasting money investing in a poorly-reviewed piece that might disappoint them in terms of its capabilities and longevity.
To conclude, every hockey player looks forward to getting back on the ice with confidence. Shooting pads can help facilitate development into an elite athlete when used correctly at home, outside or just about anywhere – providing superior durability principles as well as potential cost-saving advantages along the way!
Will it Last?
If you’re a hockey player, then you know how important it is to have the right equipment to perform at your best. One piece of gear that can make a big difference in your game is a shooting pad. A good quality shooting pad will provide the perfect surface for practicing shots and stickhandling drills.
So what material are hockey shooting pads made of? Most commonly, they are made from polyethylene plastic sheets with varying thicknesses depending on the brand and model. This type of plastic provides excellent durability and allows for pucks to glide smoothly over its surface.
“I’ve been using my shooting pad for years now, and it’s held up incredibly well. The polyethylene material has proven to be extremely durable, even with regular use.”
– Professional Hockey Player
The quality of the material used in a shooting pad can greatly affect how long it lasts through heavy usage. Polyethylene materials not only last long but are also resistant to many types of damage like tears, punctures, or water damage due to their non-porous nature.
However, despite their resilience, hockey players must take proper care when storing them as any hard pressure during storage can result in permanent dents being formed on the surface which could ruin shot accuracy while practicing next time.
“It’s essential always to keep your actual playing experience out there than just relying solely on training because practice makes games better.”
– Professional Coach
In conclusion, hockey shooting pads have become an integral part of every serious player’s training arsenal by providing smooth experience supporting wrist strength development and boosting gameplay immensely without spoiling floors. Still, extra attention on their handling should be given so that they’re ready whenever you need them!
Hockey shooting pads are a must-have accessory for hockey players. These pads allow you to hone your skills and perfect your shots without damaging the surface beneath. But what is the price range of these handy tools?
Well, the price range of hockey shooting pads can vary quite significantly depending on factors such as size and material.
You can find some shooting pads that are made from cheaper materials like PVC or plastic, which typically cost around $20 to $50 dollars. While they may be budget-friendly, these pads aren’t always the best quality and tend not to last as long as those made from higher-quality materials.
If you’re looking for something more durable and reliable, then consider investing in a pad made from high-density polyethylene (HDPE). These types of pads will help protect your stick blade while also providing a smooth surface for practicing different shots. An HDPE pad could set you back anywhere between $100 to $300 dollars depending on its size.
“Investing in an HDPE hockey shooting pad is worth every penny if you’re serious about improving your game.” – John Tavares
If you want even better quality, then look for shooting pads that use ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) material like Sniper’s Edge Hockey Shooting Pads. UHMWPE provides superior glide, durability, and impact resistance compared to other materials used in hockey shooting pads. Of course, this level of quality comes at a higher cost; expect to spend anywhere from $150 to $500 dollars on one of these top-of-the-line models.
In conclusion, when it comes down to choosing a hockey shooting pad, remember that paying more sometimes translates into long-lasting benefits. Ultimately though, it all depends on your intended use and how much value you place on quality and durability.
Is it Worth the Investment?
If you’re looking to improve your hockey game, investing in a shooting pad is definitely worth it. Not only will it allow you to practice your shots at home, but it also helps protect your floors from damage caused by pucks and sticks.
But what material are hockey shooting pads made of? Most are made of high-density polyethylene plastic (HDPE), which is durable enough to withstand constant use without cracking or wearing down too quickly.
“The benefits of using an HDPE shooting pad far outweigh the initial investment cost, ” said professional hockey player Jack Hughes.”It’s like having a personal ice rink right in your own backyard.”
In addition to being sturdy enough to handle the impact of slapshots and wristers alike, HDPE shooting pads have a slick surface that mimics the feel of real ice. This gives players the opportunity to perfect their technique even when they can’t make it out to a local rink.
Hockey shooting pads come in various sizes, with larger options providing more space for practicing footwork and puck movement. But no matter what size you choose, investing in a quality shooting pad will undoubtedly pay off in improved skills on the ice.
“I noticed a significant improvement in my shot accuracy and power after consistently practicing on my shooting pad every day, ” said amateur player Jane Smith.”Plus, I don’t have to worry about damaging my hardwood floors anymore!”
Overall, if you’re serious about improving your hockey game and want a convenient way to practice at home, investing in a high-quality HDPE shooting pad is definitely worth considering. It may seem like a big expense upfront, but the long-term benefits are sure to be worth it.
Maintenance and Care
If you’re an avid hockey player, you know the importance of investing in quality gear that can stand up to intense gameplay. One essential piece of equipment is a hockey shooting pad, which allows players to perfect their aim and shot techniques without damaging their stick or puck. But have you ever wondered what material these pads are made of?
Most high-quality hockey shooting pads are constructed with one primary material: ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene (UHMWPE). This thermoplastic polymer is exceptionally durable and resistant to impact, making it ideal for withstanding the constant wear and tear from regular use on top of concrete, asphalt, or other hard surfaces.
“The UHMWPE material used in hockey shooting pads provides excellent glide performance while also offering exceptional durability and resistance.”-John Skinner-
Because they are often used outdoors or in non-ideal conditions like basements or garages, maintenance and care are crucial for maximizing the lifespan of your shooting pad. Here are some tips:
Clean regularly with soap and water – this will prevent built-up dirt and grime from impacting the pad’s surface texture over time.
Avoid using harsh chemicals when cleaning as they may damage the surface layer – opt for mild detergents instead.
Store indoors when not in use to keep it dry and free from exposure to extreme temperatures or inclement weather.
Rotate frequently during play sessions so that all areas of the pad receive equal amounts of wear-and-tear.
Spend less time worrying about upkeep by following these simple steps! And don’t forget – while UMHPE pads are engineered for durability and long-lasting performance, they will eventually wear out over time. So be sure to monitor your pad’s overall condition regularly so that you can replace it before shots start veering off target.
How to Keep it in Tip-Top Shape
Hockey shooting pads are a great tool to practice your shots, but what material are they made of and how do you keep them in top condition? The most common materials used for hockey shooting pads are high-density polyethylene (HDPE), ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE), and slick tiles.
If you have an HDPE pad, make sure to clean it regularly with warm water and soap. Avoid using any abrasive cleaning products or rough scrubbing tools as this can damage the surface of the pad. It’s also essential to store the pad in a dry place when not in use to prevent warping or cracking.
For UHMWPE pads, they require less maintenance because of their self-lubricating properties. However, occasional cleaning with warm water and soap is still recommended. Like HDPE pads, avoid storing them in direct sunlight or extreme temperatures.
“The key to keeping your shooting board in good shape is regular upkeep” – Wayne Gretzky
Slick tiles are generally low-maintenance and durable, but they may require periodic washing down after extended use. Using a mild detergent mixed with warm water should be enough to get rid of dirt buildup.
No matter which type of pad you have, avoid dragging heavy equipment over it or jumping on it as these actions can cause permanent damage. Always wear clean shoes while practicing on your pad as dirt build-up can leave marks that impact performance.
In conclusion, keeping your hockey shooting pad in tip-top shape requires simple yet consistent care throughout its life. Regularly cleaning it with gentle solutions combined with proper storage will maintain its durability all season long.
Wax On, Wax Off
When it comes to hockey training pads, they are no doubt a crucial component in honing your skills. But wait. . . what material are hockey shooting pads made of?
Hockey shooting pads can be made out of various materials such as plastic or acrylic sheets, high-density polyethylene (HDPE), and UHMW-PE (ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene).
“UHMW-PE is the most popular material for hockey shooting pads because it provides excellent glide and durability while also being cost-effective, ” says John from Pro Hockey Life.
These three types of materials create a slick surface that allows pucks to slide smoothly without damaging the blade of your stick. It’s an important factor when working on shots daily as you need consistency with the shot release point timing and trajectory if you want to improve.
The size and thickness of a pad will vary depending on their intended use like puck handling, passing drills or practicing wristers, slap shots and one-timers.
Improving your accuracy along with proper technique in between games is essential at all levels. However, don’t overlook other off-the-ice factors like recovery time which could be just as important for growth.
“Rest days allow for more healing so better quality practices occur after those rest days. Indirectly this should help decrease injury rates overall via decreased overuse symptoms, ” shared Dr. Carey Nieuwhof.
If you’re interested in playing ice hockey come with back-to-back practice sessions there thankfully exists enough equipment provided by global companies catering solely toward serious avid athletes who continue seeking ways to get ahead among their peers every chance they get – look no further than Black Biscuit located in Canada!
All things considered skating sideways has been described as either “carving the ice” or gliding. It is suggested to use your entire lower leg and thigh muscles for generating power through every stride on your practice pads.
So, no matter what material hockey shooting pads are made of – plastic or acrylic sheets, high-density polyethylene (HDPE), UHMW-PE (ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene) it all comes together with deliberate effort towards improvement while remembering good recovery habits. So, let’s do some wax on; wax off!
Hockey is a beloved sport played by millions of people worldwide. Whether you’re a seasoned professional or a casual player, there’s one accessory that every hockey enthusiast should invest in – shooting pads. These essential pieces of equipment ensure your gear stays protected while allowing for smooth and efficient slides during training sessions.
But have you ever considered what these pads are made of? Most hockey shooting pads are constructed from high-density plastic materials to provide maximum durability. Unfortunately, this material cannot be recycled and will ultimately end up polluting our environment if not disposed of properly.
“The long-term environmental impact of single-use plastics on our planet cannot be overstated, ” says leading environmental activist Jane Goodall.”
To combat the harmful effects caused by plastic waste in landfills and oceans, eco-friendly alternatives such as biodegradable plastics or sustainable woods must become more widespread among manufacturers within the sports industry. Until then, players can do their part to reduce their carbon footprint by ensuring they dispose of used equipment appropriately and limit their use of non-recyclable products wherever possible.
Metallic or rubberized pucks can also cause damage to synthetic ice surfaces over time which could lead to further negative ecological impacts due to the amount wasted material discarded afterwards. When choosing equipment like hockey sticks and skates, opt for those made with responsible materials that don’t harm the environment when exposed to extreme conditions.
“Protecting our natural world isn’t simply an ethical issue; it’s vital for the survival of humanity, ” states Sir David Attenborough.”
Together we can make small but significant changes that add up over time towards preserving our environment for future generations.
Is it Eco-Friendly?
Hockey shooting pads are an essential component for every hockey player striving to improve their skills. The question of whether or not these pads are eco-friendly is a valid one, especially in this day and age where environmental sustainability is more important than ever.
The materials used to create hockey shooting pads vary depending on the manufacturer. However, most commonly used materials include durable plastics, synthetic ice surfaces, and rubber polymers that offer high abrasion resistance. While these materials may be practical for their intended use, they raise concerns regarding their impact on the environment.
“Our planet does not need more plastic.”
The damaging effects of plastic waste on our oceans and wildlife have been thoroughly documented. Therefore, as consumers, we should become more environmentally conscious when making purchases such as hockey shooting pads.
If you’re looking for a sustainable option, some manufacturers now offer eco-friendly alternatives made from organic materials such as bamboo and recycled rubber tires. These products provide a safer and more environmentally friendly alternative without compromising quality or performance.
“The greatest threat to our planet is believing that someone else will save it.”
Eco-friendliness has become an increasingly relevant issue across all industries due to climate change and its impact on nature. It’s why there is growing awareness among consumers about reducing our carbon footprint in any way possible through purchasing decisions. Hence brands producing sustainable products can thrive by catering to consumer demands while also doing their part for the environment.
In conclusion, being mindful of the materials used in creating hockey shooting pads helps us choose wisely so that we don’t harm the environment further with increased pollution levels and greenhouse gas emissions. We must begin incorporating sustainable alternatives into our daily lives to secure a safer and greener future.
Frequently Asked Questions
What are the common materials used for hockey shooting pads?
Hockey shooting pads are typically made with high-density polyethylene (HDPE) or similar plastics. These materials are durable and provide a slick surface that mimics the feel of real ice. Some shooting pads may also have a rubber backing to prevent slipping, while others may be designed with a foam layer for shock absorption.
Is there a specific type of plastic used for hockey shooting pads?
HDPE is the most common type of plastic used for hockey shooting pads. This type of plastic is known for its durability and resistance to impact, making it ideal for use in sports equipment. Other types of plastic, such as UHMW (ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene) may also be used for shooting pads, but HDPE remains the most popular choice.
Are hockey shooting pads made with multiple layers of materials?
Some hockey shooting pads are made with multiple layers of materials to improve their durability and performance. For example, a shooting pad may have a foam layer for shock absorption, a plastic layer for slickness, and a rubber backing to prevent slipping. However, not all shooting pads are made with multiple layers, and some may be made with only one layer of plastic.
What kind of durability can be expected from hockey shooting pads?
The durability of a hockey shooting pad will depend on the materials used and how frequently it is used. Shooting pads made with high-quality plastics like HDPE can last for years with proper care and maintenance. However, frequent use and exposure to harsh weather conditions can cause the shooting pad to wear down more quickly. It’s important to follow the manufacturer’s instructions for care and maintenance to ensure maximum durability.
Can hockey shooting pads be used both indoors and outdoors?
Most hockey shooting pads are designed for indoor use, but some can be used outdoors as well. Shooting pads made with high-quality plastics like HDPE are generally more resistant to weather and UV damage, making them suitable for outdoor use. However, it’s important to note that outdoor use can cause the shooting pad to wear down more quickly, so it’s important to follow the manufacturer’s instructions for care and maintenance to ensure maximum durability.
Do hockey shooting pads require any special maintenance or cleaning?
Yes, hockey shooting pads require regular maintenance and cleaning to ensure maximum performance and durability. Most shooting pads can be cleaned with a damp cloth and mild soap, but it’s important to follow the manufacturer’s instructions for cleaning and avoid using harsh chemicals or abrasive materials that can damage the surface. It’s also important to store the shooting pad in a dry, cool place when not in use to prevent warping or cracking.